Neutropenia – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnostics, Treatment

Neutropenia - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnostics, TreatmentNeutropenia is a condition in which the number of neutrophils in the blood is reduced. Because of this, bacterial and fungal diseases are much more complicated. The symptoms of the pathological process may be unexpressed, but the patient is rapidly developing a fever. In this case, broad-spectrum antibiotics are needed. When diagnosing neutropenia, it is important not only to determine the number of neutrophils, but also the reason for the decrease in their concentration. This condition often develops in cancer patients after chemotherapy.

Patients suffering from neutropenia need to remember the following facts:

Possible causes of neutropenia

A huge number of factors can provoke the development of neutropenia. They can be natural and pathological. Most often, pathology is caused by:

Neutropenia is a dangerous condition. It poses a serious threat to the health and life of the patient. Any infection occurring against its background significantly weakens the body.

The main symptoms of neutropenia

The rate of neutropenia occurrence depends on the severity of the infectious process, as well as the degree of decrease in the level of these blood cells. Usually, patients first of all form stomatitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis appear. Due to the lack of movement of leukocytes, inflammation has a fibrotic-necrotic character.

A gray plaque forms on the mucous membranes, which indicates the development of a bacterial process. Infectious agents enter the general bloodstream and rapidly spread throughout the body. The patient has a headache, apathy, nausea, body temperature can reach 40 degrees. Also , the characteristic symptoms of neutropenia include:

Neutropenia is a serious disease that, if a person doesn’t follow safety measures, it leads to serious complications and even death. If all the recommendations of the doctor are followed, the patient will be able to protect himself from such consequences. A mild degree of neutropenia is determined only by the results of a general blood test. Supportive medications are prescribed to prevent the increase of more serious symptoms.

Every patient with this pathology should be as attentive to their health as possible. Especially if he is in a high-risk group. It is necessary to consult a doctor if such symptoms appear:

Diagnostic methods

Neutropenia often develops in patients who are susceptible to infections. People who have undergone radiation or chemical therapy are at increased risk. Neutropenia can be detected by a general blood test. According to the results, the doctor will be able to determine the infectious process in the body. Additionally, diagnostics includes the following studies:


There is no specific treatment regimen for neutropenia: the disease has a diverse course, causes of occurrence. The intensity of therapy will depend on the patient himself: his condition, age, degree of lesion and spread of the inflammatory process. Mild forms of neutropenia do not require any treatment. Exacerbations of infections are treated in the same way as in all patients.

Patients with severe neutropenia need to be under constant medical supervision – they are placed in a hospital. Antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal drugs with increased doses are prescribed. When choosing a medicine, it is necessary to analyze the sensitivity of microflora to active substances. Before receiving the results, the patient is intravenously injected with broad-spectrum antibiotics. If his condition has not improved after 3 days of drug therapy, increase the dose of the antibiotic or change the drug.

Patients with neutropenia who have developed the disease on the background of chemotherapy or radiation exposure are indicated to take antibiotics until the number of neutrophils reaches 500 mg / ml of blood. If a fungal one joins the infectious process, it is necessary to take fungicides. To minimize the risk of bacterial infection, the patient is prescribed trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole. Colony-stimulating factors are increasingly being used to treat neutropenia. To maintain immunity, it is necessary to take glucocorticosteroids, vitamin complexes.

If the spleen has been destroyed against the background of neutropenia, its surgical removal is indicated. However, the operation is categorically contraindicated in septic complications and severe forms of pathology. In the most advanced cases, a bone marrow transplant may be required.

Category: General

Tags: human health, Neutropenia, symptoms