Hematologist – Definition, Diseases, Diagnosis, Treatment
A hematologist is a doctor who deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the blood and organs of hematopoiesis. This specialist works with children and adults and applies both traditional and modern techniques in his practice. It can successfully detect even hidden pathologies that do not manifest expressed symptoms.
Hematologist: what heals?
These specialists provide therapy for the following diseases:
- Anemia. This pathology is characterized by a decrease in the indicators of erythrocytes and hemoglobin. Anemia is not a separate disease. This is a symptom of mycosis, pyelonephritis, tuberculosis and other dangerous conditions. It is usually accompanied by weakness, general malaise, impaired appetite and sleep, shortness of breath even with moderate exertion and poor concentration.
- Lymphocytic leukemia. This disease is malignant and is characterized by the proliferation of atypical B-lymphocytes, which accumulate in the bone marrow, spleen, liver and lymph nodes. Predisposition to pathology is inherited, and its main symptoms include an increase in lymph nodes, increased sweating, weakness and sudden weight loss. As lymphocytic leukemia develops, enlargement of the spleen and liver, anemia, dizziness, spontaneous bleeding are detected.
- Myeloma disease. This pathology is malignant and is characterized by the ability of tumor cells to synthesize homogeneous immunoglobulins or their fragments. The tumor is formed mainly in the bone marrow, can be focal, diffuse and focal-diffuse.
- Myeloid leukemia. This form of leukemia is characterized by the rapid division of special cells in the bone marrow and their accumulation in the blood. Usually it is diagnosed only during a clinical analysis, since often the pathology does not manifest itself in any way. In some cases, patients complain of a slight increase in body temperature, decreased immunity and general malaise. It is also possible to detect anemia and enlargement of the spleen.
- Lymphomas. This pathology is characterized by an increase in lymph nodes. The primary focus of the tumor usually metastases and spreads throughout the body. There are several forms of lymphoma that differ in symptoms and degree of malignancy.
When to go to the hematologist?
A doctor’s consultation is required for the following signs of various disorders:
- enlargement of lymph nodes;
- weakness and drowsiness;
- an increase in body temperature (not against the background of colds and inflammatory processes);
- weight loss;
- sleep disorders;
- excessive sweating;
- pallor of the skin;
- decreased appetite;
- the appearance of bruises on the body without objective reasons;
Help is required for patients who complain of joint pain, itching, dryness of the integument, tingling and numbness of the fingers. You should make an appointment with a hematologist if you have a hereditary predisposition to blood diseases and low hemoglobin detected as part of a general diagnosis. Both therapists and gastroenterologists, neurologists and other doctors can refer to this narrow specialist.
How to prepare for consultation?
Special preparation for the standard reception is not required. Some restrictions are imposed only if the patient must first pass tests.
Before research, it is necessary:
- try to give up alcohol and smoking for a few days;
- limit fluid intake (per day);
- refuse to eat (in 10-12 hours);
- exclude the use of medications. If this is not possible, you should inform your doctor about what medications are being taken, according to what schedule and in what dosages.
Stages of hematologist consultation
It is aimed at collecting anamnesis. The patient is asked about the symptoms of diseases that have arisen. The doctor specifies the time of the appearance of pathologic signs, their intensity and other features. The specialist also finds out the hereditary predisposition to various diseases.
The doctor assesses the condition of the skin and mucous membranes. During the examination, such signs of disorders in the work of the hematopoiesis system as skin pallor, rashes, hematomas, cyanosis (cyanotic coloration) may be detected.
Diagnosis or appointment of additional examinations
If the patient contacts a hematologist with the results of blood tests, the diagnosis can be made immediately. If studies have not been conducted, the doctor prescribes them. In some cases, not only laboratory, but also instrumental examinations are required. The doctor writes out directions for them.
Blood diseases are characterized by various manifestations that are similar to other pathological conditions. Therefore, a wide range of examination methods is used to identify them. It is mandatory for the patient to take blood tests.
Also there can be conducted:
- urine tests;
- puncture of lymph nodes;
- CT and MRI (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging);
- radiography of flat bones;
- ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and lymph nodes;
- bone marrow puncture, etc.
Comprehensive diagnostics makes it possible to identify even hidden pathologies that have not yet manifested themselves in any way.
The scheme and program of therapy are developed depending on the individual characteristics of the patient, the general current condition, the presence of concomitant diseases.
The main areas of treatment include:
- antibacterial. It is required for patients who suffer from a general decrease in immunity and are more susceptible to various infections than others;
- transfusion. Such therapy consists in transfusion of blood and its components;
- supportive. It is aimed at eliminating the symptoms of the disease and improving the general well-being of the patient
- chemotherapy. It is prescribed for the purpose of disrupting the processes of growth and reproduction, as well as necrosis of malignant cells;
- medication. Such treatment is carried out to fill the deficiency of various elements, correct the work of the blood coagulation system and accelerate metabolic processes;
- radiation therapy. It is prescribed in combination with other manipulations to combat oncological pathologies;
- doctors can also resort to hormonal treatment, bone marrow cell transplantation, surgical interventions.
Tags: anemia, hematology, human health