Bone Marrow Biopsy – The Main Characteristics
Bone marrow biopsy is the most revealing and accurate way to study and assess the stage of development of many serious diseases, such as leukemia and other pathologies of the hematopoiesis system.
The purpose of the bone marrow study
Bone marrow biopsy allows you to quickly and accurately identify the presence of degenerative and malignant changes in the hematopoietic system. This is a minimally invasive manipulation, which consists in taking a small amount of bone tissue by puncturing the anterior wall of the sternum. Then the obtained sample is sent to the laboratory for microscopic and histological examination, as well as a number of other tests (genetic, immunological analyses, etc.).
Indications and contraindications
Indications for taking bone marrow tissues for research are:
- changes in the indicators of leukocytes, erythrocytes, etc., indicating the presence of disorders of bone marrow hematopoiesis;
- suspicion of degenerative processes of the bone marrow;
- diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia;
- detection of oncohematological pathologies – lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, etc.;
- diagnosis of the stage and degree of leukemia;
- the study is not carried out in patients with impaired blood clotting in order to avoid the development of bleeding.
Preparation for biopsy
Bone marrow tissue sampling is carried out on an outpatient basis, in a sterile operating room. Before the procedure, you need to take a blood test, no other preparation is required.
How the procedure is carried out?
A bone marrow biopsy at the clinic is performed using local anesthesia, so the procedure is completely painless. Puncture is performed in the area of the sternum or ilium. An oncogematologist will carefully make a puncture with a special needle, and then use a vacuum syringe to take away some bone marrow tissue. The puncture site is covered with a sterile bandage, and the biopsy is placed on a slide and sent to the laboratory for examination. The duration of the manipulation is about 20 -25 minutes.
Bone marrow analysis
Bone marrow analysis (counting of myelogram and evaluation of trepanobioptate) is carried out by a doctor of laboratory diagnostics and a pathologist, who issues an appropriate conclusion.
The conclusion of the bone marrow analysis is necessary for your hematologist or oncologist to make the correct diagnosis.
The results of the tests are prepared within a few days. Check with your doctor when you can get them. In some cases, it may be necessary to perform several analyses over time.
In order to avoid the complications, a number of recommendations must be followed after manipulation:
- do not touch the sterile bandage for 24 hours;
- exclude shower and bath;
- minimize physical loads for 2-3 days.
If a sedative was used, you should refrain from driving a car during the day.
Tags: biopsy, bone marrow transplantation, human health